Chapter 3 - Overview
Duchenne Smile – full face smile
including the eyes
It's believed that some 50 different types of smiles exist, ranging
from triumphant ones to those that convey bitterness.
The first is an open smile "in which the lips are drawn back, the
cheeks are raised and crows-feet wrinkles appear around the eyes."
Technically this is called a Duchenne smile, which
may be the truest and most intense of all.
The second smile type is like the Duchenne,
only minus the "smiley eyes." The third is a suppressed smile,
"where the speaker is trying to hide their smile by pulling their lips in
or down as they speak." Finally, they denoted times when the speakers
weren't smiling at all.
was for a study in which people were told to answer all questions with "I
do in the summer," no matter the question.
of questions included, "Do you ever sunbathe?" and, "Do you go
naturally people started to smile at the strange answer to all questions.
audio for the interviews was then played back to another group of test
subjects. Even without seeing the speakers, the listeners were able to hear the
different types of smile
Harker and Keltner
study: Year book photos as predictors of life satisfaction
114 high school yearbook
photos between the years 1958 and 1960, rated for the Duchenne
The higher the rating the
more marital and life satisfaction the women had many years later.
in marriage and life was not related to physical attractiveness, but it was
related to the extent of the Duchenne smile.
there something in the Frame of the women with that special genuine smile that
increased there sense of well-being?
they just so pleasant to be around that they drew more positive people to
But Ekman has also found out more about the Duchenne smile. It seems that in addition to the different
facial muscles involved, a different area of the brain is activated: the left
prefrontal cortex where positive emotions come from. And the connection between
a smile and this part of the brain can work backwards as well: by putting on a
true smile, you can activate this pleasure center and make yourself happy.
It may sound too good to be true, and actually it is. A spontaneous
smile activates more areas than a self-produced one - and so the two are not
completely equivalent. There is no simple route to happiness - just a few clues
to detect those who are faking it...
The Role of Positive Emotions
People exposed to films which elicited anger, anxiety, or other similar
emotions were less likely to use global big picture problem solving strategies
than those who were exposed to films with elicited positive feelings.
Positive feelings led to:
The Role of Positive Emotions
do you think the reason is that these results have been observed?
What Leads to Happiness
The Hedonic Treadmill
H=S + C +V
H is your overall happiness level over time
S is your genetic setpoint for happiness, a
baseline level of temperment
C is your life circumstances, some controllable, some not
V is your internal mind-set, the thoughts, attitudes, emotional, and
behavioral factors you can control, Aspects of your FRAME!
Psychology is focused on altering the V factors to increase life satisfaction.
indicates that S accounts for 50% of your happiness level, C accounts for 10%,
and V accounts for 40%
are working more with the V factor to influence our overall happiness within
the limitations (potentials) of S and C.
How to Boost Your Happiness
Pleasures tend to be short term satisfactions that fade when the
Gratifications are activities that we find very fulfilling that we can
“lose ourselves in” that are highly absorbing. Hobbies or any
activity that enjoyably fills our attention.
Bryant and Veroff recommend Savoring
as a way to maximize pleasure in the present.
It is the awareness of pleasure that comes from paying deliberate
conscious attention to the experience of pleasure. People who savor and
anticipate positive events are happier.
Other Experts Recommendations on Boosting Your
group that “acted” happy had increases in happiness compared to the control
group and to a group that received partial information.
follow-up 9 to 25 months after the study the group that learned how to “act
happy” remained much happier than either of the control groups.
Fake it till
you Make It Redux
of well- being could be increased if people learned to imitate the behaviors of
more time socializing (acting like extraverts)
an optimistic outlook
a healthy perssonality