lies behind us and what lies before
us are small matters compared to what lies
Waldo Emerson, Philosopher
several personal qualities that help people to be happy.
psychology and cite its four major goals.
the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and actions.
self, self-image, and identity.
the components of identity.
What do you see?
An Interesting Afterimage Illusion
• Psychology Scientific study of human
• Behavior Anything that you think, feel or do.
• Goals of Psychology Describe, predict, explain, and (in some
cases) change human behavior.
psychology helps you understand yourself and others.
Explaining Human Behavior
Why do people think, feel and act the way they do?
• Nervous system Regulates thoughts, feelings and actions.
• Conscious Mind The part of the brain that
controls the mental processes of which we are aware.
• Subconscious Mind The part of the brain that
controls the mental processes of which we are not actively aware.
Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions
(thought) Mental processing of information in any form.
Includes: perceiving, recognizing, remembering,
reasoning, solving problems, making decisions, forming concepts, visualizing.
(feeling) Subjective feeling accompanied
by physical and behavioral changes.
Personal Journal 1.2
Your Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions
The science & study of
human behavior…including the underlying processes that cause behavior…
physiological & mental…
those psychological (mental, emotional, social) and physiological processes that underlie human behavior!
and clinical observations!
What is an OBSERVATION?
measure, see, count, time, etc.
An observation is an event, even a little one..
• A TRUE experiment is a
research method where one variable (IV) is manipulated to see if there is a
change in another variable (DV).
• The independent variable is
the thing that someone actively controls/changes; while the dependent variable
is the thing that changes as a result. In other words, the independent variable
is the “presumed cause,” while dependent variable is the “presumed effect” of the independent variable.
What is Success?
Success: a lifetime of personal
• Success is a journey, not
Money and fame don’t equal success.
1: What Success Means to You
Ingredients of Success
your personal values, qualities, skills and interests.
a goal and working toward it.
Thinking Focusing on future
possibilities to propel yourself toward your goals.
5. Self-Discipline Daily personal effort putting your plans into action.
6. Self-Motivation Getting and staying motivated. Moving forward despite
7. Positive Relationships Healthy relationships with friends, family, and co-workers.
Journal 1.1 Ingredients of Success
Who is a Success?
society, it is not always obvious who are truly successful people.
• Role Model Person who has qualities you would like to
Always make time for relationships.
Adults need role models, too.
2: Role Model
• Modeling: The social-learning process by which
behavior is observed and imitated
• Locus of Control: The expectancy that one’s reinforcements
are generally controlled by internal or external factors
• Self-Efficacy: The belief that one is capable of
performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome.
• Personality emerges from
the mutual interactions of individuals, their actions, and their environments
Success and Happiness
• Happiness The natural experience of winning your
self-respect and the respect of others.
factors—wealth, youth, physical attractiveness, etc., have little effect on
Create your own opportunities for happiness.
3: How Happy Are You?
“est,” Scientology, Silva Mind Control
apparent in Heaven’s Gate
and belongingness are keys to involvement
Dear Abby, Dr. Phil, etc.
“enabling” aspects of alcoholics’ spouses
1987 Codependent No More
application of the term
addictions to diverse behaviors &
to the participation of significant others in
that “addictive” behavior
participation/controlling/enabling, itself, signals “codependency” in the
options include The Twelve-Step Program of AA
Is the Codependency Movement for real?
• Evaluation difficult
• Definitions vary widely
• Empirical research is
• With vague definition, it’s
• Which behaviors would one
• Are all compulsive
• Are all repetitive
• What problems are the ones
“caused” by codependency?
• Gender bias
• Over-application to women
• Questions as to the
NURTURING ROLE applied more to women
• Problems to watch for…
Circular definitions and solutions
Absence of empirical backing
• Look for …
Clarity and soundness
A plan, not a “miracle cure” or “quick fix”
Scientific support of effectiveness
way to boost your happiness is to develop personal qualities that will help you
enjoy life and cope with challenges.
have identified the following qualities: ability to love, vocation, courage,
trust, optimism, future-mindedness, social skills, aesthetic sensibility, work
ethic, honesty, emotional awareness, persistence, forgiveness, creative
thinking, spirituality, self-esteem and wisdom.
Try new ways of thinking and doing.
• Self Your sense of being a unique,
conscious being, the inner core of you.
• Self-Image All the beliefs you have about
Areas in which you have self-images include:
intellectual ability, competence, creativity, sense of humor, morality,
romantic appeal, physical appearance, parental relationships, close
friendships, and social acceptance.
Building A Healthy Self-Image
healthy self-image is positive but realistic.
the best of all the things you do well.
• Is based
on who you are right now.
• Does not
limit who you will be next week.
complex self-image means having a variety of positive ways to see yourself.
Journal 1.3 How Do You See Yourself?
4: Wheel of Life
You and Your Social World
• Social Role Norms that define how you are supposed to
behave in a given situation.
• Self-Preservation Altering your behavior to make a good
impression of others.
Activity 5: Sides of Yourself
• How you
choose to define yourself to the world.
• Individual Identity The physical and psychological
characteristics that distinguish you.
• Relational Identity How you identify yourself in relation to
• Collective Identity The sum of the social roles you
play and the social groups to which you belong.
Activity 6: Identify Profile
Culture, Gender and Identity
• Culture – the
behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large social group,
transmitted from one generation to the next.
Western– individualism, Eastern-collectivism
• Gender Role – norms
that define how males and females are supposed to behave.
• Gender Bias - treating someone differently or unfairly
due to one’s gender.
Defining Your Role
suggest that it is healthiest to have a combination of stereotypically masculine
and feminine qualities.
• Some typical qualities:
logical, assertive, sensitive, independent, gentle, compassionate.
Don’t put limits on what you can become.