Chapter 2


 “Few people even scratch the surface, much less

exhaust the contemplation of their own experience. ”


Randolph Bourne, Essayist








Learning Objectives

•      Define self-awareness and cite its benefits.

•      Explain the factors that influence people’s values.

•      Define personality and list the “big five” personality traits.

•      Compare and contrast skills, knowledge, and interests.

•      Explain how personality, skills, and interests relate to career choice.


Finding Your Direction

•           Self-Awareness  The process of paying attention to yourself.


2.  Self-Honesty  The ability to see your strengths and weaknesses clearly.


Success Secret

•           Self-honesty helps you get in touch with your dreams, values and interests.


Personal Journal 2.1 How Well Do You Know Yourself?

Finding Your Direction continued…

3. Self-Consciousness – The tendency to frequently think about and observe yourself.


    Private self-consciousness  Understanding yourself.

     Public self-consciousness  Understanding how your 

                                                      behavior affects others.

Success Secret

•      Too much self-consciousness can produce anxiety.


     Activity 7: How Self-Conscious Are You?


The Self-Monitoring Scale

•      Is each of the following statements true or false?

•       1.  I find it hard to imitate the behavior of other people.

•      2.   At parties or social gatherings, I do not attempt to say or do things that others will like.

•      3.   I can only argue for ideas that I already believe.

•      4.   I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information.




•      5.   I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain others.

•      6.   I would probably make a good actor.

•      7.   In a group I am rarely the center of attention.

•      8.   In different situations and with different people I often act like very different persons.

•      9.   I am not particularly good at making other people like me.



•      10.   I'm not always the person I appear to be.

•      11.   I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) in order to please someone.

•       12.         I have considered being an entertainer.

•      13. I have never been good at games like charades or improvisational acting.

•      14. I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations.



•      15.        At a party I let others keep the jokes and stories going.

•      16.        I feel a bit awkward in public and do not show up quite as well as I should.

•      17.        I can look anyone in the eye and tell a lie (if for a right end).

•      18.  I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them.

Scoring the Test

•      T-4,5,6,8,10,12,17,18 

•      F-1,2,3,7,9,11,13,14,15,16

•      >13 high  <7 low      7---13 Average



“Putting your best foot forward”

Awareness of the “public self?”


How do “first impressions” stem from


Social-Learning Theory

•      Modeling: The social-learning process by which behavior is observed and imitated

•      Locus of Control: The expectancy that one’s reinforcements are generally controlled by internal or external factors

•      Self-Efficacy: The belief that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome.

      Locus of Control Scale

•      1. I usually get what I want in life.

•      2. I need to be kept informed about news events.

•      3. I never know where I stand with other people.

•      4. I do not really believe in luck or chance.

•      5. I think that I could easily win a lottery.

•      6. If I do not succeed on a task, I tend to give up.

•      7. I usually convince others to do things my way.


•      8. People make a difference in controlling crime.

•      9. The success I have is largely a matter of chance.

•      10. Marriage is largely a gamble for most people.

•      11. People must be the master of their own fate.

•      12. It is not important for me to vote.

•      13. My life seems like a series of random events.

•      14. I never try anything that I am not sure of.

•      15. I earn the respect and honors I receive.


•      16. A person can get rich by taking risks.

•      17. Leaders are successful when they work hard.

•      18. Persistence and hard work usually lead to success.

•      19. It is difficult to know who my real friends are.

•      20. Other people usually control my life.


Give yourself five points for every matching answer.

•      1. T

•      2. T

•      3. F

•      4. T

•      5. F

•      6. F

•      7. T

•      8. T

•      9. F

•      10. F

•      11. T

•      12. F

•      13. F

•      14. T

•      15. T

•      16. F

•      17. T

•      18. T

•      19. F

•      20. F


•      0-15 Very strong external locus of control
20-35 External locus of control
40-60 Both external and internal locus of control
65-80 Internal locus of control
85-100 Very strong internal locus of control


•      The Internal-External Control Scale (popularly called “locus of control scale”) attempts to measure the degree to which people perceive a causal relationship between their own efforts and environmental consequences. People who score high (in the direction of internal control) believe that reinforcement is generally contingent on their own actions or personal traits.




•      Internal – tends to be self-motivated and optimistic, tend to take responsibility for their actions and see themselves as the cause of what happens in their life.  They try to learn what went wrong when they make mistakes so they can correct them.


•      External – tend not to see the connection between their actions and what happens.  Will often blame others for their problems and mistakes.  They may fear change and tend to look to others to motivate them.  They often feel nothing can be done when things go wrong and will blame, “fate.”


Identifying Your Emotions – Figure 2.1

        I Feel Comfortable




Identifying Your Emotions – Figure 2.1

   I Feel Uncomfortable


4. Emotional Awareness  The process of recognizing, identifying and accepting your emotions.


5. Identifying Your Emotions: 

    Pay attention to how your body feels.

    What occurred right before the emotion started?


Success Secrets

•      Develop the courage to handle painful emotions.

•      Look for the exact word to express what you feel.


Personal Journal 1.1  Ingredients of Success

Defining Your Dreams

•      Dream  An aspiration, hope, or vision for the               future that gives your life purpose.


     No dream is better than any other.

     No dream is too big to achieve, or too small to count.


•      Reclaiming Your Dreams

     Think back to childhood, before you worried about what other people might think. What did you want to be when you grew up?


Success Secret

•      A dream can be anything you want it to be.


    Personal Journal 2.2  What are your dreams?


The Vision Quest

•      A search for your direction in life (destiny?) a sense of what you are moving towards in life and allies that may help you along your path.

•      An alternative term, is a “wishing quest.”

•      Wishstorming – brainstorming about what you would wish for if you had unlimited wishes

How to “Wishstorm”

•      Be specific in what you imagine, i.e. the make, model, color, upholstery etc. of your car, not just a new car.

•      What would you do if you had six days to live? What activities would you seek out, where would you like to visit, who would you go and see, what would you say?  How would your strategy change if you had six months instead?

Ground Hog Day

•      What would you do if you were immortal and could live forever?

•      The goal of these exercises is a sense of “clarity” understanding your goals and what the real purpose behind those goals might be.

•      What will this goal get for me? What needs are really being met?


•      Our earliest memories are in images, not in words.  We can communicate with our unconscious by using imagery, as that is the language of the unconscious.

•      Visualizations can alter your emotions, behavior and even physiology.

Sports Performance

•      Richardson (1969) tested three groups of boys in free throws.

•    1 practiced shooting, 1 group did nothing, 3rd group visualized shooting and making free throws.

•    What do you think happened?


•      Group 1 improved 24%

•      Group 2 showed no change

•      Group 3 (visualization group) improved 23%



•      1. Establish short term goals.

•      2. Reward yourself with something concrete when you attain a short term goal.

•      3. Establish your own standard for success.

•      4. Realistically appraise your abilities and form goals based on strengths.

Getting In Touch With Your Values

•      Values The beliefs and principles you choose to live by.


•      Ethics  The principles you use to define acceptable behavior and decide what is right and wrong for you.



•      What values are important to you?  Adventure, Commitment, Community, Compassion, Courage, Creativity, Environmentalism, Fairness, Financial Security, Fun, Generosity, Hard Work, Health, Honesty, Independence, Integrity, Kindness, Knowledge, Learning, Loyalty, Relationships, Responsibility, Social Responsibility, Solitude, Spirituality, Tolerance, etc.

Values continued…

We can become confused about our values

when we adopt other people’s values as our own.


•      Did I choose this value or copy it from someone else?

•      Does this value make me feel good about myself?

•      Will other people benefit if I act according to this value?

•      Will something truly bad happen if I don’t follow this value?

•      Is this value flexible enough to allow me to pursue my needs and goals?


   Activity 8: Values Inventory

Your Values At Work

•      No job can suit all of your values perfectly.


•      It is important to find a balance between fulfillment in work and in life.


Success Secrets

•      Values are beliefs, not absolutes.

•      Values guide your choices in life.

Discovering Your Strengths
Personality and Individuality

•      Personality  The relatively stable pattern of behavior that distinguishes you from all other people.


•      Trait  A durable disposition to behave in a certain way regardless of the situation. Traits are shaped by our genes, but also by our upbringing and experiences.


    Activity 9: Personality Self-Portrait


The “Big Five” Personality Traits

•      Openness  Imaginativeness, openness to new people, ideas, and experiences.


•      Conscientiousness  Self-discipline and desire to achieve


•      Extroversion  Assertiveness, sociability, and interest in excitement and activity.


•      Agreeableness  Trustworthiness, warmth and cooperativeness.


•      Neuroticism  Resistance to negative emotions such as anxiety, anger and depression.


Success Secret

•      Use your personality traits to help you succeed.

Exploring Your Skills & Interests

•      Skill  The ability to do something specific as a result of learning and practice


    Job-specific –ability to do a specific job/task.

    Transferable skills – abilities you can use in a variety of jobs/tasks.


•      Knowledge  An understanding of facts or principles in a particular subject area. Knowledge isn’t a skill until it is combined with real-world experience.



Skills & Interests continued…

If you aren’t sure what your skills are, ask yourself:


•      What do I have experience doing?


•      What areas of knowledge do I have?


•      What projects have I completed at home, work, or school?


•      What problems have I solved? What skills did that show?


•      What do I enjoy doing? What kinds of skills does this require?


Activity 10: Skills Assessment

Multiple Skills, Multiple Intelligences

•  Intelligence  A set of abilities that enables you to

   solve certain types of real-world problems.





Discover Your Learning Style

Redefining Intelligence: Other Learning Styles and Abilities


•    Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences


•      Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.


•      Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.


•      Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.


•      Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related.


•      Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.


•      Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.


•      Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives.

•      Naturalistic intelligence is the ability to recognize patterns, make connections in nature, assemble collections, and identify  plants and animals

Discovering Your Interests

•      Interests  Personal preferences for specific topics or activities. 


•      What do you like and enjoy?


Success Secret

•       Skills and interests go hand in hand.


   Personal Journal 2.3 Explore Your Interests


•      Realistic – doers who prefer hands-on activities to activities involving words or relationships.

•      mechanical abilities, making things, Pilot, electrician, engineer, construction worker.

•      Investigative – thinkers who like to investigate and solve problems.

•      abstract thinking, new knowledge, testing hypotheses, research scientist, physicist, chemist, medical researcher, college professor.

•      Conventional – organizers who thrive in situations with rules and structure

•      self-disciplined, orderly, routine tasks, clerical worker, accountant, bank teller, data entry worker.


•      Enterprising – persuaders who enjoy using their verbal

•      risk takers, enjoy business. Sales managers, real estate brokers, business owners.

•      Social – helpers who value relationships more than intellectual or physical activity.

•      work with people, especially helping relationships. Social worker, counselor, teacher, health care worker, clinical psychologist.

•      Artistic – creators who value self-expression

•      creative, imaginative, emotional, unconventional perspectives. Painting, sculpting, music, writing, and dance. 


•       You should take several tests, rather than just one. Why?

•     There is no one best test everyone recommends.

•     There is no one test that always gives better results than the others.

•     No test should necessarily be assumed to be accurate.

•       Don’t let tests make you forget that you are a unique human being.

•       Let your intuition be you guide.

•       You are not finished with a test until you have done some serious self exploration about:

•     Your goals

•     The goals of your goals

•     Your passions - likes and dislikes

•     Your strengths and weaknesses

•     Your level of motivation


Putting It All Together
Self-Awareness and Work

•      Why Work Matters  Most of us will spend about 80,000 hours of our lives at work. The work you do, therefore, has an enormous impact on your success and happiness.


•      Satisfaction  Gaining self-worth from a job well done.

•      Relationships  Learning from other people.

•      Meaning Fulfilling your personal purpose in life.


Success Secret

•       Let your skills and interests guide your career choices.

Myths About Work

1. By nature, work is unpleasant.

2. If I do what I enjoy, I won’t make any money.

3. If I don’t know what I want to do for the rest of my life, there must be something wrong with me.

4. I’m the only one who doesn’t have a fixed occupational goal.

5. There is one, and only one, perfect career for me.

6. Somewhere, there is an expert or a test that will tell me exactly what I should do for the rest of my life.

7. A “real” job is 9 to 5, five days a week, working for someone else.

8. What I do at work defines who I am as a person.

9. Once I choose a career, I should stick with it no matter what.

10. You have to suffer to get ahead.


Success Secrets

•      Myths spring from negative work attitudes.

•      Work can and should be something you enjoy.